Polling vs. Long Polling vs. WebSocket vs. Server-Sent Events

There are several techniques for real-time communication between clients and servers. Each of these techniques has its own characteristics and use cases. Polling and long polling are simple to use but they aren’t as efficient as WebSocket and Server-Side Events. Here’s how these techniques compare and contrast against each other.


  • Polling involves a client sending requests to the server at regular intervals to check if there are any updates.
  • On receiving the request, the server responds with new data if one is available or an empty response if no data has been updated.
  • You can leverage simple AJAX requests and page reloads to implement polling in your applications.
  • Clients repeatedly request updates even when there are none, resulting in unnecessary network traffic and increased server load.
  • This approach is suitable for scenarios where updates are infrequent or a real-time response is not a priority.

Long Polling

  • Long polling reduces unnecessary requests to the server and enables near real-time updates compared to regular polling.
  • Servers hold requests open until an update is available rather than responding immediately to a client request.
  • The server responds when an update is available. Then, the client sends a new request to keep the connection alive.
  • When no updates are available within a particular timeframe, the server responds with an empty response. The client sends a new request and continues listening.
  • Although long polling reduces the frequency of requests and enables a real-time response, it still involves frequent connections and overhead due to request/response cycles.


  • WebSocket enables communication between servers and consumers over a single, persistent, reliable, and full-duplex connection.
  • WebSocket is ideally suited for applications requiring continuous data transfers, such as chat applications and collaboration tools.
  • Due to server-side infrastructure requirements, WebSocket isn’t supported in all legacy or restricted environments such as older browsers and certain network configurations.

Server-Sent Events

  • SSE provides a lightweight, unidirectional approach to server-client communication over HTTP.
  • Contrary to WebSockets, communication between server and client in server-sent events runs in only one direction, from server to client.
  • SSE enables real-time updates without the complexity of WebSockets.
  • SSE is well suited for scenarios where communication is unidirectional, i.e., the server needs to forward updates to clients, such as news feeds, notifications, or real-time monitoring dashboards.

Use Cases

WebSockets provide bidirectional communication between a server and a client, which makes them suitable for real-time polling apps, chat apps, etc. Server-Sent Events support a unidirectional communication between client and server. This means that the messages are transmitted in single direction only, i.e., from server to client. They are often used for push notifications, news feeds, and other similar purposes.

Read about implementing Server side events.. more here

AutoMapper in .NET 6

Adding AutoMapper to ASP.NET 6 application;

dotnet add package AutoMapper --version 10.1.1
dotnet add package AutoMapper.Extensions.Microsoft.DependencyInjection --version 8.1.1

The next step is adding the AutoMapper to our DI container, inside the program.cs we need to add the following;


Now its time to create our AutoMapper profiles, so on the root directory of our application we need to create AutoMapperProfile.cs

We are going to map the below entity (“User”) to the a Dto (“UserDto”)

public class User
        public Guid Id { get; set; }
        public string FirstName { get; set; }
        public string LastName { get; set; }
        public string Email { get; set; }
        public string Phone { get; set; }
        public DateTime DateOfBirth { get; set; }
        public string Country { get; set; }
        public string Address { get; set; }
        public string MobileNumber { get; set; }
        public string Sex { get; set; }
public class UserDto
        public string FirstName { get; set; }
        public string LastName { get; set; }
        public string Email { get; set; }
        public string Phone { get; set; }
        public string DateOfBirth { get; set; }
        public string Country { get; set; }

Now inside the AutoMapperProfile class we need to add the following

public class AutoMapperProfile : Profile
        public AutoMapperProfile()
            CreateMap<UserDto, User>()
                    dest => dest.FirstName,
                    opt => opt.MapFrom(src => $"{src.FirstName}")
                    dest => dest.LastName,
                    opt => opt.MapFrom(src => $"{src.LastName}")
                    dest => dest.Email,
                    opt => opt.MapFrom(src => $"{src.Email}")
                    dest => Convert.ToDateTime(dest.DateOfBirth),
                    opt => opt.MapFrom(src => $"{src.DateOfBirth}")
                    dest => dest.Phone,
                    opt => opt.MapFrom(src => $"{src.Phone}")
                    dest => dest.Country,
                    opt => opt.MapFrom(src => $"{src.Country}")
                    dest => dest.Status,
                    opt => opt.MapFrom(src => 1)

The AutoMapperProfile class MUST inherit from Profile class in order for AutoMapper to recognise it.

Inside the constructor we define the mapping between the Entity and the Dto.

Once we complete our profile mapping its now to utilise our new map in our controller.

public class UsersController : ControllerBase
    public IUnitOfWork _unitOfWork;
    // define the mapper
    public readonly IMapper _mapper;

    // initialise the dependencies with constructor initialisation
    public UsersController(
        IMapper mapper,
        IUnitOfWork unitOfWork)
        _mapper = mapper;
        _unitOfWork = unitOfWork;

    public async Task<IActionResult> AddUser(UserDto user)
        // utilise the mapping :)
        var _mappedUser = _mapper.Map<User>(user);

        await _unitOfWork.Users.Add(_mappedUser);
        await _unitOfWork.CompleteAsync();

        var result = new Result<UserDto>();
        result.Content = user;

        return CreatedAtRoute("GetUser", new { id = _mappedUser.Id}, result); // return a 201

So basically we need to initialise the mapper with constructor initialisation.

Then we need to utilise as follow

var _mappedUser = _mapper.Map<Entity>(dto);

AutoMapper is a powerful tool to keep in our toolset.

Angular13 and .NET 6 – Getting started

We would need to install Visual Studio 2022.


Install .NET 6 SDK

This can be downloaded either from Microsoft official URL;


Or from the GitHub official release page;


Check the SDK version by opening a command prompt;

> dotnet –help
> dot net –version

Install NVM

If we need to work with different Node.js version, we would need to install nvm.

To prepare for angular development, we would need following components;

  1. Nvm – Node Version Manager. Its is a tool that allows us to download install Node.js. It allows us to pick and choose the Node.js version.
  2. Node.js – Its is a platform for running Javascript applications.

To install node version manager for windows (nvm), click here;


Scroll to Assets tab and download either nvm-setup.zip or nvm-setup.exe.

If download is for nvm-setup.zip, Unzip download zip file and run nvm-setup.exe. Select Symlink for Node.js. When finished, run this command;

> nvm –version

To install node.js, use this;

//installs the latest version of node.js
> nvm install latest              

//this will install specific version of node.js
> nvm install <<version number>> 

If we have multiple versions of node.js and wanted to use a specific version in our environment, try this in elevated command prompt;

> nvm use 18.8.0

Install Angular CLI;

npm is alredy installed with Visual Studio 2022 installation. Time to install Angular CLI;

> npm install -g @angular/cli@13.0.1

When finished, run following command to check the version;

> ng –version

In my case, I got this error message;

Since I have installed node.js latest version v18.8.0 but Angular 13 doesn’t’ support this. To resolve, head to this link;


So version 16.17.0 is the LTS version. Download and use this version using nvm;

> nvm install 16.17.0
> nvm use 16.17.0

I tried to use ng –version command on my computer but it didn’t work. I needed to re-run this command for angular cli installation;

> npm install -g @angular/cli@13.0.1

restart your computer and run this command again to check Angular CLI version;

> ng --version

This time installation is successful with this message;

Path Variables

If nvm doesn’t work, add it to the environment variable. Press win+I on windows 11. Under About -> “Device specifications” box, click on “Advanced system settings” and select environment variables.

Add nvm.exe to “User variables for admin” section. Here are the values;

Restart your computer. Open command window and run following command any where;

> nvm --version

This should work.

Check All versions

> nvm –-version
> npm –-version
> node –version
> ng –version</p>

If all commands run successfully, We are ready to rock-n-roll with Angular 13 and .NET 6.

Creating test project using Visual Studio 2022

Microsoft has a template, ASP.NET Core with Angular, to create .NET core project with Angular. It’s a single project template with front-end and back-end project. We will not be using this template for our test project. We will create two projects, front-end and back-end and connect those projects.

Create front-end project, e.g. Foo, using “Standalone Typescript Angular Project” template. Create back-end web API project, e.g. FooAPI, within same solution. Double click on launchsettings.json file and change ports to 5001 for https and 5000 for http.

On front-end project, under /src/proxy.conf.js, make sure the port is configured to be 5001. This is the port kestrel web server is listening for incoming requests.

const PROXY_CONFIG = [
    context: [
    target: "https://localhost:5001",
    secure: false

module.exports = PROXY_CONFIG;

Angular development port configuration are in /.vscode/launch.json file. If you don’t see it, it might be hidden. Usually it’s mapped to HTTPS on port 4200.

Last step is to setup startup project for this multi-project solution. Right click on solution and click on “Set startup project”. Change startup project from “single startup project” to “multiple startup projects” and select “start” for each project. Move FooAPI project on top so it can start first.

Do a quick test run of these multi-projects in Debug mode by pressing F5. Visual Studio will launch 3 process;

  1. ASP.NET Core Server (Kestral or IIS Express)
  2. Angular Live Development Server (using “ng serve” command from the Angular CLI)
  3. Web Server (Google or Edge)

We will be seeing this basic page;

Angular component performing a simple data fetching task from ASP.NET Core Web API project. A small but good working example without any boilerplate code / extra fluff.

A sample diagram how these 3 process interact with each other;

All components are working as expected.